They were all Jews, to be sure. However, were they also "Christians"? What Christianity did not begin with Christianity refers to Jesus of Nazareth. But it did not begin with him.
The earliest followers of Jesus composed an apocalypticSecond Temple Jewish sectwhich historians refer to as Jewish Christianity. The first part of the period, during the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostlesis called the Apostolic Age.
In line with the Great Commission attributed to the resurrected Jesusthe Apostles are said to have dispersed from Jerusalemand the Christian missionary activity spread Christianity to cities throughout the Hellenistic world and even beyond the Roman Empire.
The relationship of Paul the Apostle and Judaism is still disputed although Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than any other New Testament author.
If the Tiber rises as high as the city walls, if the Nile does not send its waters up over the fields, if the heavens give no rain, if there A description of palestine where christianity first appeared an earthquake, if there is famine or pestilence, straightway the cry is, 'Away with the Christians to the lion!
Though early Christian apologetics certainly tackled the issue of Greek religionthe criticisms of early Christian early writers also extended to what The Oxford Handbook to the Second Sophistic describes as the "cultural privilege that was deemed to accrue from the mastery of the Greek language".
Part of the unifying trend was an increasingly harsh anti-Judaism and rejection of Judaizers. Early Christianity gradually grew apart from Judaism during the first two centuries and established itself as a predominantly gentile religion in the Roman Empire.
According to Will Durantthe Christian Church prevailed over paganism because it offered a much more attractive doctrine and because the church leaders addressed human needs better than their rivals.
Early Christian writers such as Justin Martyr — described these practices. Baptism in early Christianity Early Christian beliefs regarding baptism probably predate the New Testament writings.
It seems certain that numerous Jewish sects and certainly Jesus's disciples practised baptism, which became integral to nearly every manifestation of the religion of the Jews. John the Baptist had baptized many people, before baptisms took place in the name of Jesus Christ.
Many of the interpretations that would later become Orthodox Christian beliefs concerning baptism can be traced to apostles such as Paul, who likened baptism to being buried with Christ in his death Romans 6: On the basis of this description, it was supposed by some modern theologians that the early Christians practised baptism by submersion Matthew 3: This interpretation is debated between those Christian denominations who advocate immersion baptism exclusively and those who practice baptism by affusion or aspersion as well as by immersion.
Yet the Didacheone of the earliest Christian writings on liturgical practices, mentions that baptism may occur by pouring water on the head three times using the trinitarian formula i. The Orthodox Church continues this practice, submerging the baptized and then pouring water on the head in that formula.
Infant baptism was widely practised at least by the 3rd century but it is disputed whether it was in the first centuries of Christianity.
Some believe that the Church in the apostolic period practised infant baptism, arguing that the mention of the baptism of households in the Acts of the Apostles would have included children within the household. The Bishop Polycarp, himself a disciple of the Apostle Johnstated at his martyrdom AD that he had been in the "service of Christ" for eighty-six years.
Other recorded dates from Polycarp's life make it likely that eighty-six years was his age from birth as well. Joachim Jeremias concludes the following from these facts: If his parents were pagans at his birth, he would have been baptized with the 'house' at their conversion.
But even if his parents were Christians, the words 'service of Christ for eighty-six years' support a baptism soon after his birth rather than one as a child of 'mature years' Otherwise, let their parents or other relatives speak for them.
The 3rd century evidence is clearer, with both Origen calling infant baptism "according to the usage of the Church"  and Cyprian advocating the practice. Tertullian acknowledges the practice and that sponsors would speak on behalf of the childrenbut, holding an unusual view of marriage, argues against it, on the grounds that baptism should be postponed until after marriage.
The early Christian writings mentioned above, which date from the 2nd and 3rd century indicate that Christians as early as the 2nd century did maintain such a practice. In Paul 's time, although certain decisions by Elders and Apostles were binding, as in the Council of Jerusalem there were no precisely delineated functions yet for bishopseldersand deacons.
These structures were certainly formalized well before the end of the Early Christian period, which concluded with the legalization of Christianity by Constantine 's Edict of Milan in and the holding of the First Council of Nicea inwhen the title of Metropolitan bishop first appears.
In the post-Apostolic church, bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations, and a hierarchy of clergy gradually took on the form of episkopoi overseerspresbyteroi elders and diakonoi ministerial servants.
This hierarchy emerged slowly and at different times for different locations. Clement, a 1st-century bishop of Rome, refers to the leaders of the Corinthian church in his epistle to Corinthians as bishops and presbyters interchangeably.
The New Testament writers also use the terms "overseer" and "elder" interchangeably and as synonyms. Disputes regarding the proper titles and roles of church leaders would later become one of the major causes of schism within the Christian Church. Churches such as the Catholic and Orthodox use the word "priest" of all the baptized, but apply it in a more specific sense "ministerial priesthood"  to bishops and presbyters  and sometimes, somewhat loosely, treat "presbyter" and "priest" as synonyms,  applying both terms to clergy subordinate to bishops.
In congregational churchesthe title "priest" is rejected, keeping only "presbyter" or "elder". Some congregational churches do not include a role of bishop in their organizational polity.Against them the “Justification of the True Faith” was written by Ariston from Pella () the first Greek author after the apostles and Saint James, who wrote on the history of the Church of Jerusalem and was the first justifier of Christianity against the Jews.
Early Christianity is the history of Christianity in antiquity, from its origins (1st century) until the First Council of Nicaea in This period is typically divided historically into the Apostolic Age (1st century), the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea), and at least the beginning (or all) of Christianity in late antiquity (from Constantine, c.
, until the fall of. Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect, in the 1st century, in the Roman province of Judea. Jesus' apostles and their successors, the Apostolic Fathers, spread it across large parts of the Middle East, Europe, Ethiopia, Transcaucasia and some other parts of Asia, despite initial persecution.
Thus, the anti-Israel, anti-Christian name of Palestine was assimilated into the Universal Church's vocabulary as the Byzantine Empire was being established.
The Church has, since that time, broadly used the term Palestine in literature and in maps to refer to the Land of Israel. Baitul-Maqdis in Palestine was the first Qibla (direction in which Muslims face when praying) too, and Muslims prayed facing Baitul-Maqdis for around 14 years, after which Allah ordered the Qibla to be changed towards the Kaabah in Makkah.
Mar 17, · Christian beliefs center on the life of Jesus of Nazareth, a teacher and healer who lived in first century Palestine. The primary source of information about the life of Jesus are the Gospels, which were written sometime between 20 and years after his death and became the first four books of .