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Sexual Violence in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Sexual Violence in the Greek and Roman Worlds is a generally worthwhile collection of essays about a non-existent topic. This statement is not meant to be facetious. Nor do I intend to suggest that acts that we would call "rape" did not occur in antiquity.
When I say that rape did not exist in antiquity, what I mean is that there is no single word in either ancient Greek or Latin with the same semantic field as the modern English word "rape" viol in French or Vergewaltigung in German.
True, ancient authors give us some information not as much as we would like about acts of rape and ancient attitudes toward sexual violence. But we should not assume they had a concept of rape similar to ours. Several of the authors in this collection are aware there is a problem with using our word "rape" when analyzing sexual relations in antiquity.
Harrison in one of the best essays poses the question "was all sex rape" in Classical Greece "or was there no such thing at all? This is especially necessary today since the legal definition of rape has undergone several important and in my opinion positive changes in the past twenty years since the publication of Susan Brownmiller's landmark book Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape New York For instance, when Brownmiller wrote the law in the United States defined rape as "the perpetration of an act of sexual intercourse with a female, not one's wife, against her will and consent.
And New York Law used to require evidence of emission to prove a crime of rape, a requirement that made it extremely difficult for prosecutors to secure a conviction.
Thanks to the work of feminists like Brownmiller, society has begun to change its view of rape, and the legal definition of the offense has been revised. But the main problem with using the modern term "rape" when studying sexual violence in antiquity is that our concept focuses on the absence of the victim's consent.
Ancient authors, on the other hand, had very different notions from ours about women's power and ability to grant consent and were more interested in questions of honor when it came to judging acts of sexual violence.
Instead of providing an overview to the topic, each author examines only one aspect of sexual violence Ogden on rape and legitimacy, Omitowoju on rape and status, Byrne on bestiality and rape or one kind of evidence for sexual violence Arafat and Kilmer on vase painting, Deacy on New Comedy, Harrison on rape in Herodotus, Arieti on rape in Livy, Saunders on rape in Chaucer.
The best essays compare the conclusions reached on the basis of one kind of evidence with that found in other sources. For example, Deacy compares the evidence of New Comedy with what is known from the legal sources, and Saunders places Chaucer's treatment of rape in the context of contemporary English society and the tradition of Christian ideas about female sexuality.
Yet several authors in the collection seem unaware of scholarship done in other areas. For instance, Arafat and Kilmer, both art historians, do not realize that Lysias' claim 1. The result is that analysis is often fragmented. Although the papers originated in a conference on rape that took place at the University of Wales in Cardiff in Novemberone sometimes gets the impression that each contributor wrote in isolation from the others.
Surely the goal of conferences is to promote dialogue among scholars from different fields, but there is little evidence of any shared discussion among historians, literary critics, and archaeologists in this collection. For a synthesis of recent work, therefore, one has to look at Doblhofer's Vergewaltigung in der Antike Stuttgart and Leipzig Another problem with the collection is the uneven coverage of "antiquity.
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Nor is there an essay on sexual violence in late antiquity: Saunders touches briefly on Augustine's views, but only in the context of her discussion of Medieval attitudes toward rape: For this period readers will have to consult works like J.
In her essay on "Fear in the Seven Against Thebes" Byrne seeks to show how "rape, marriage, and death are equated in the play but very little of the essay has anything to say about rape. The essay begins good observations about the comparison of rape with marriage at Aeschlyus Septem and and association of defeat and rape at but the rest of the essay strays from the topic and examines the use of lament, Eteocles' "feminine side," and possible Dionysiac gender blending.
The argument is often difficult to follow and several of the ideas are far-fetched: Arieti's essay on "Rape and Livy's View of Roman history" is also weak. Arieti argues that the prominence of rape in Livy can be explained by the influence of Empedocles' ideas about Love and Strife.
Although Arieti demonstrates Roman intellectuals in the late Republic read Empedocles, his argument for Empedoclean influence on Livy is pure speculation.
Arafat's essay on "State of the art - art of the state: Arafat discusses several vases where men either pursue or abduct women, but most of his essay concerns the issue "of seeing reflections of political developments and preoccupations in the art of the Archaic and Classical periods.
The section about the Eurymedon vase studies the controversy between Schauenberg and Pinney over the date and identity of the barbarian, and the discussion of Oreithyia looks at its connection with the dedication of a temple to Boreas for his help at Artemision and Zeus' pursuit of Aegina as an expression of the Athenian conquest of the island.
There are many good points and sensible discussion of issues, but there is little discussion of rape per se until the conclusion where he asks why rape is not condemned and notes that the Greeks view rape more as a means to an end. Unfortunately he does not pursue these insights nor attempt to tie them in with the other essays.
The other essay on rape in vase painting by Martin Kilmer bears more directly on the topic. Kilmer confronts the difficult task of identifying scenes of rape in early red-figure pottery.
Kilmer draws on the abundant evidence collected his valuable Greek Erotica on Attic Red-Figure Vases Londonbut finds few depictions of rape. Out of dozens of pairs and occasional threesomes copulating on these vases, it is hard to find one partner using severe violence on the other.
For instance, on a cup by the Pedieus painter a man wielding a sandal penetrates a woman from behind.Going by the title of this paper you are probably asking yourself How in Gods name can torture be seen as an art, were these people mentally ill?
well it was, but I talk about that later, let me tell you a little about the history of torture. Torture has been around since the times of Ancie. A basic level guide to some of the best known and loved works of prose, poetry and drama from ancient Greece - Oedipus the King by Sophocles.
Torture Essay Examples. 32 total results. The Woes of Disabled Jews during the Holocaust. 1, words. 3 pages. Abuse and Torture in My Life Story. words. An Analysis of the Torture Since Ancient Greece.
1, words. 4 pages. Efforts Made to Eliminate Torture in the World Since the Eighteenth Century. 1, words. Democracy has since then been restored, but the infamous alleged torturer of the junta, Mallios, was provocatively acquitted (he sneered at the torture victims in court).
Ancient Conceptions of Analysis. 1. Introduction to Supplement; 2.
Ancient Greek Geometry since, for every construction we carry out fulfilling the required conditions, there is a corresponding theorem to be proved demonstrating that the construction has the desired properties, and for every theorem, there will be some associated.
In Ancient Greece, The human ability to entertain himself and others has been present since the beginning of civilization, and, by the likes of it, will be present forever.
Who knows, maybe we can expect a revival of interest in hoop rolling in the near future? “Little Ease”: One of the most feared torture devices in the Tower of.