Gender inequality in India Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses.
With the gradual rise of more complex civilizations in the river valleys of Egypt and Babylonia, knowledge became too complicated to transmit directly from person to person and from generation to generation.
To be able to function in complex societies, man needed some way of accumulating, recording, and preserving his cultural heritage. So with the rise of trade, government, and formal religion came the invention of writing, by about BC. Because firsthand experience in everyday living could not teach such skills as writing and reading, a place devoted exclusively to learning--the school--appeared.
And with the school appeared a group of adults specially designated as teachers--the scribes of the court and the priests of the temple.
The children were either in the vast majority who continued to learn exclusively by an informal apprenticeship or the tiny minority who received formal schooling. The method of learning was memorization, and the motivation was the fear of harsh physical discipline.
On an ancient Egyptian clay tablet discovered by archaeologists, a child had written: In the 1st century AD, the historian Flavius Josephus wrote: The main concern was the study of the first five books of the Old Testament--the Pentateuch--and the precepts of the oral tradition that had grown up around them.
At age 13, brighter boys could continue their studies as disciples of a rabbi, the "master" or "teacher. Ancient Greece The Greek gods were much more down-to-earth and much less awesome than the remote gods of the East. Because they were endowed with human qualities and often represented aspects of the physical world--such as the sun, the moon, and the sea--they were closer to man and to the world he lived in.
The Greeks, therefore, could find spiritual satisfaction in the ordinary, everyday world. They could develop a secular life free from the domination of a priesthood that exacted homage to gods remote from everyday life.
The goal of education in the Greek city-states was to prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen. The nature of the city-states varied greatly, and this was also true of the education they considered appropriate.
The goal of education in Sparta, an authoritarian, military city-state, was to produce soldier-citizens. On the other hand, the goal of education in Athens, a democratic city-state, was to produce citizens trained in the arts of both peace and war.
The boys of Sparta were obliged to leave home at the age of 7 to join sternly disciplined groups under the supervision of a hierarchy of officers. From age 7 to 18, they underwent an increasingly severe course of training.
They walked barefoot, slept on hard beds, and worked at gymnastics and other physical activities such as running, jumping, javelin and discus throwing, swimming, and hunting. They were subjected to strict discipline and harsh physical punishment; indeed, they were taught to take pride in the amount of pain they could endure.
At 18, Spartan boys became military cadets and learned the arts of war. At 20, they joined the state militia--a standing reserve force available for duty in time of emergency--in which they served until they were 60 years old.
The typical Spartan may or may not have been able to read. But reading, writing, literature, and the arts were considered unsuitable for the soldier-citizen and were therefore not part of his education.
Music and dancing were a part of that education, but only because they served military ends. Unlike the other Greek city-states, Sparta provided training for girls that went beyond the domestic arts.
The girls were not forced to leave home, but otherwise their training was similar to that of the boys. They too learned to run, jump, throw the javelin and discus, and wrestle.
The Athenians apparently made sport of the physique prized in Spartan women, for in a comedy by the Athenian playwright Aristophanes a character says to a Spartan girl: How lovely thou art, how blooming thy skin, how rounded thy flesh! Thou mightest strangle a bull.
In Athens the ideal citizen was a person educated in the arts of both peace and war, and this made both schools and exercise fields necessary. Other than requiring two years of military training that began at age 18, the state left parents to educate their sons as they saw fit.Thus at Venice the College, even in the absence of the Doge, is called "Most Serene Prince." The Palatine of Posen, father of the King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine.
John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. It is giving all children between the ages of six and 14 access to free, compulsory education in a local school.
At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group.
The Latest TEA News. The latest news from the Texas Education Agency is available through news releases, online correspondence, . Minors at Ashford University. Whether you want to complete an online Bachelor's degree program for Early Childhood Education or pursue an online Health Care Administration Bachelor's degree, you can add value to your education.
In this course, students acquire the writing competence necessary for conducting and presenting research. A variety of assignments, beginning with personal reflections, build upon one another, as students develop ideas that respond to, critique, and synthesize the positions of others.