The Wikipedia Opinion poll site has history and methods of this emergent profession that was pioneered in America, and its Polling organizations lists some globally distributed polling organizations in other countries. USA Election Polls track the innumerable election-related polls in the election-rich American political system. The National Council on Public Polls NCPP defines professional standards for and lists its members--but many polls online and off do not adhere to such standards. Polls have become indispensable to finding out what people think and how they behave.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time.
We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences.
Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. Analytical Task The general analytical problem. In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently.
Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages.
Thinking Tools. The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question "what causes X?
Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B? If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern?
What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way.
Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing.
And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity.
What causes differences in dress "codes" across cultures?
What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies and time.
Clothing differs between "primitive" cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context?Discuss the possible sources of bias and inaccuracy whenever a person looks back on their past history. Be sure to discuss factors related to memory and factors related to cognition.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format.
> Discuss the possible sources of bias and inaccuracy whenever a person looks back on their past history. Discuss the possible sources of bias and inaccuracy whenever a . Even the best polls have problems with fashioning their questions to avoid bias, confusion, and distortion (Asher , ).
no voter's ballot can be revealed or traced back to that person, and every vote that is cast gets counted as a cast vote in the appropriate jurisdictional locale. gateway to several major sources ° Public. Discuss the possible sources of bias and inaccuracy whenever a person looks back on their past history.
Be sure to discuss factors related to memory and factors related to cognition. Be sure to discuss factors related to memory and factors related to cognition.
Aug 30, · A Few of the Many Ways We Distort Reality Thinking we are right in our perceptions may be an illusion. Posted Aug 30, The Free State of Jones: Mississippi’s Longest Civil War.
For the two of them, the Knight family saga has continued into the 20th century and beyond. Their cousin Davis Knight, who looked white and claimed to be white, was tried for the crime of miscegenation in , after marrying a white woman.