When in George Orwell—social conservative, Little Englander, intellectual cosmopolitan—hopefully envisioned an English socialist revolution, he assured his readers and himself that such a mere political event, like all such past convulsions, would prove no more than a surface disturbance.
Probable date of temple AD — Probable date of colonnade AD — According to folk etymologythe name "Kashmir" means " desiccated land" from the Sanskrit: This is still the local tradition, and in the existing physical condition of the country, we may see some ground for the story which has taken this form.
According to the Mahabharata the Kambojas ruled Kashmir during the epic period with a Republican system of government  from the capital city of Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava.
The name Peer Panjal, which is a part of modern Kashmir, is a witness to this fact. Panjal is simply a distorted form of the Sanskritic tribal term Panchala[ citation needed ].
The Muslims prefixed the word peer to it in memory of Siddha Faqir and the name thereafter is said to have changed into Peer Panjal. During one of his hunting campaigns he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place.
The king was impressed and decided to set up a town after his name, Jamboo. With the passage of time, the name was corrupted and became "Jammu". Historiography[ edit ] Nilmata Purana complied c. However, being a Puranic source, it has been argued that it suffers from a degree of inconsistency and unreliability.
Both the texts were written in Persian and used Rajatarangini and Persian histories as their sources. RajataranginiKushan EmpireHuna peopleBuddhism in KashmirKarkota Empireand Mauryan Empire This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramullawith two figures standing on the summit, and another at the base with measuring scales, was taken by John Burke in The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to CE.
Earliest Neolithic sites in the flood plains of Kashmir valley are dated to c. Most important of these sites are the settlements at Burzahomwhich had two Neolithic and one Megalithic phases.
In the second phase, which lasted till c. Hunting and fishing were the primary modes of subsistence though evidence of cultivation of wheat, barley, and lentils has also been found in both the phases. After Porus lost the battle, Abhisares submitted to Alexander by sending him treasure and elephants.
During this period, many stupassome shrines dedicated to Shivaand the city of Srinagari Srinagar were built. Kashmiri Buddhist missionaries helped spread Buddhism to Tibet and China and from the fifth century CE, pilgrims from these countries started visiting Kashmir.
He was opposed by Baladitya in Magadha and eventually defeated by Yasodharman in Malwa. After the defeat, Mihirakula returned to Kashmir where he led a coup on the king.
He then conquered of Gandhara where he committed many atrocities on Buddhists and destroyed their shrines. In the centuries that followed, Kashmir produced many poets, philosophers, and artists who contributed to Sanskrit literature and Hindu religion.
Dualistic interpretation of Shaiva scripture was defeated by Abhinavagupta c.
The temple complex was built by the third ruler of the Karkota dynastyLalitaditya Muktapidain the 8th century CE. It is one of the largest temple complex on the Indian Subcontinent.
In the eighth century, Karkota Empire established themselves as rulers of Kashmir.
Chandrapida of this dynasty was recognized by an imperial order of the Chinese emperor as the king of Kashmir. His successor Lalitaditya Muktapida lead a successful military campaign against the Tibetans.
He then defeated Yashovarman of Kanyakubja and subsequently conquered eastern kingdoms of Magadha, KamarupaGaudaand Kalinga. Lalitaditya extended his influence of Malwa and Gujarat and defeated Arabs at Sindh. His successor Shankaravarman — CE led a successful military campaign against Gurjaras in Punjab.
Under the Tantrins, civil administration collapsed and chaos reigned in Kashmir till they were defeated by Chakravarman.
However, both his campaigns failed because he could not siege the fortress at Lohkot. Probable date AD to Oriental and India Office Collection. Prelude and Kashmir Sultanate —s [ edit ] Historian Mohibbul Hasan states that the oppressive taxation, corruption, internecine fights and rise of feudal lords Damaras during the unpopular rule of the Lohara dynasty — CE paved the way for foreign invasions of Kashmir.
He was persuaded to accept Islam by his minister Shah Mirprobably for political reasons. Islam had penetrated into countries outside Kashmir and in absence of the support from Hindus, who were in a majority,  Rinchana needed the support of the Kashmiri Muslims. Sultan Sikandar imposed taxes on non—Muslims, forced conversions to Islam, and earned the title But—Shikan for destroying idols.
However, they were subjugated by his son Hasan Khan who took over as ruler in CE.Albiruni's India Al-Biruni ( – ) was a Persian scholar and Polymath from the Khwarezm region.
He is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian and chronologist.
In religion he was a. The "lost tribes of Israel" are the Muslims of Afghanistan and Kashmir -- Proved from the Bible and History -- Afghan and Kashmiri cities mentioned and documented. Words Essays, Notes, Articles, Debates, Paragraphs & Speech in English.
All American Home Inspection LLC believes we are that business. When looking for a home inspector don’t let your first question be “how much”. The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia, South Asia and East Asia.
Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. Essay on “Rural Uplift Programme of India” Complete Essay for Class 10 and Class Essay on “Future of English in India ” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.