Or so it appeared to me, given that I was reading Chantal Mouffe at the time. Her two most recent books Agonistics: Thinking the World Politically Verso, and The Democratic Paradox Verso, provide a useful perspective, although perhaps a limited one. Curiously enough, both Labour and the Tories had to give some version of the liberal position.
But dominant Christianity sees the Earth not as sacred but as something to be ruled over as God commanded—i. This article describes some of the direct results of the Christian belief in God-sanctioned dominion. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.
And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age. As the last recorded personal directive of Jesus to his disciples, it holds great significance to all his followers.
It is the theological foundation for Christian evangelism, Crusades, and the Doctrine of Discovery. Many Native Americans, when speaking about Western civilization, Christianity and colonization, will immediately name the Doctrine of Discovery as the root of the colonization, dispossession and genocide they have experienced from the western colonial powers throughout the Americas.
Any land not Christianized, i. Gilder Lehrman Collection In Romanus Pontifex and then again in Inter Caetera the Intellectual hegemony, claiming dominion over the entire world, issued statements which gave European rulers the sanction to colonize all of the non-Christian world.
The Bulls gave Columbus, Cortez, Pizarro, Cook, Hudson and the rest both legal and moral license to do whatever they wanted to the people and lands they encountered, including dispossession, enslavement, and murder.
For example, in the Tennessee Supreme Court case Tennessee v. Forman, the court ruled: The principle declared in the fifteenth century as the law of Christendom that discovery gave title to assume sovereignty over, and to govern the unconverted natives of Africa, Asia, and North and South America, has been recognized as a part of the national law, for nearly four centuries.
Therefore all Native American land claims were null and void. The Doctrine of Discovery still stands in their way.
And the entitlement, arrogance, and righteousness it is based on is evident in the common use of the word discovery in this colonizing sense. People discover new restaurants, bars and hotspots. They discover new neighborhoods with inexpensive prices and move in.
This contemporary doctrine of discovery, labeled gentrification, carries a presumption of entitlement to invasion and possession just from the fact people now recognize something they were previously unaware of.
The privacy, sovereignty and rights of the people whose space they are invading are disregarded as they appropriate land, culture or spiritual practices. Crusading — God commanding Christians to wage pre-emptive war — became a controlling idea.
Because people must be evil controlled by the Devil to oppose the will of God, the non-Christian enemy was always deemed intractable and had to be exterminated for the safety of the community.
Any people judged barbarian, not living by civilized i. Christian standards, were subject to colonization for the same reasons. Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus and Hernan Cortez all wore the cross on their breast, on their sails and, besides their commercial goals, hoped to attack Islamic rulers from the rear by circumnavigating Africa or reaching Asia.
The popes strongly encouraged these expeditions. All pronouncements and laws issued by the throne used discover and pacify, even when referring to armed intervention.In addition to the everyday things that you can do, there are concepts that need to be discussed and not just in a trite way.
The mantra "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle" is pregnant with meaning, and reflects worthwhile goals, but it hardly contains solutions to the real integral problems of the world. Hegemony: Hegemony, the dominance of one group over another, often supported by legitimating norms and ideas.
The term hegemony is today often used as shorthand to describe the relatively dominant position of a particular set of ideas and their associated tendency . Noble lies and perpetual war: Leo Strauss, the neo-cons, and Iraq.
Are the ideas of the conservative political philosopher Leo Strauss a shaping influence on the Bush administration’s world outlook?
Danny Postel interviews Shadia Drury – a leading scholarly critic of Strauss – and asks her about the connection between Plato’s . Foreword Among the numerous casualties of Iran’s tainted presidential elections was the legitimacy of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
While for two decades Khamenei had attempted to cultivate an image of an impartial and magnanimous guide. 40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors. SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy.
A NEW WORLD ORDER?. Watching the American Presidential Primaries and now the ‘Brexit’ vote in the UK on leaving the European Union, I am struck by how apt the political theory of Chantal Mouffe is to both situations. Both in the US and the UK, there was a contest as to whether liberal democracy would be liberal or.