A minimum of two receivers are involved in relative or differential positioning.
But existing GNSS accuracy and reliability do not satisfy all clients. Ground-based augmentation systems provide GNSS observation data and real-time corrections for high-precision positioning and navigation. EUPOS is an initiative to build and run such systems with uniform standards and full-scale accuracy in fifteen Central and Eastern European countries.
Uniform ground-based multifunctional DGNSS reference-station systems and services are being built in the participating countries. Given the ever-increasing globalisation of economic relationships, Europe needs an infrastructure favourable for positioning and navigation.
A corresponding infrastructure helps to safeguard and strengthen regions both as a whole and in terms of economic growth. It supports the devel-opment of the social aspects of cities and regions, management and optimisation of land, air and water traffic, disaster management, public-security duties, hydrography, protection of the climate and environment etc.
The factual constraints demand cost-effect-ive solutions, further development of technical capabilities and mastery of forward-looking technologies. Technical Potential The technical possibilities offered by GNSS give the official authorities responsible for spatial reference systems the chance to fulfil their mission of International gnns service station absolute position geodetic reference systems efficiently and in accord-ance with requirements.
Galileo as a European spatial information infrastructure attains to very concrete political and economic use. Spatial information makes transpar-ent and comprehensible decisions possible at European, national and regional levels.
With these products the state survey administrations provide fundamental infrastructure for all spatial and land-related information as an important base for planning and administrative, legal, economic and scientific activities.
Unfortunately, the DGNSS reference-station systems already existing in Western Europe are often not compatible since they do not use the same standards. Slovenia has observer status. Taking into consideration also Russian territory in Asia, where this infrastructure will be established, EUPOS will be realised for an area of about 10 million square kilometres.
The data products can be used in many differ-ent applications requiring accuracy better than 3m and up to 1cm-level in real-time and sub-centimetre precision with post-processing. This 'full-scale accuracy' concept targets all types of users, from environmental protection, transport and public security, hydrography, maritime surveying, river and maritime traffic, fishing, machinery and vehicle control, to spatial data infrastructure developers and geodesy.
EUPOS is independent of private-company solutions and uses only international and unlimit-ed worldwide usable standards. EUPOS provides the GNSS observation data and real-time corrections for high-precision positioning and navigation with guaranteed availability and quality.
Organisation The responsibility for developing and operating the EUPOS reference station network is distributed among participating organisations at national level, which gives the characteristic flavour of the organisation.
The NSCs are responsible not only for network developments and operation but also provide focal points for user information, quality and integrity assurance and international relations with other EUPOS countries.
The ISC may establish working groups to investigate specific areas of interest, co-operation and co-ordination. The admission of a new member to the organisation will be confirmed by ISC resolution.
Normally, those government authorities re-sponsible for the geodetic reference system of a country become a member of EUPOS. These are particu-larly the surveying administrations, but also authorities for outer-space affairs.
It is also acceptable if the responsible government body authorises another person to be its representative at ISC. This has noted with satisfaction that EUPOS would be the first ground-based GNSS infrastructure of its kind with regional reach and that it would significantly enhance the scope of use and applications for GNSS, as well as their scientific, social and economic benefits.
This was founded on the recommendation of the UN General Assembly in order to maximise the benefits of the use and applications of GNSS, to support sustain-able development and to promote system compatibility and integrity between the different GNSS and augmentation systems.
This will be of interest not only to national decision-makers and clients, but also to international organisations. EUPOS by its trans-national compatible activities promotes the economic development of various applications and supports the growing together of the countries of Europe.
For more information see the website www.GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey Andria Bilich, Gerald L. Mader, National Geodetic Survey BIOGRAPHY The International GNSS Service (IGS) maintains a database of type mean calibrations for antennas used at IGS network stations.
Some antennas. For position fixing with an accuracy better than about the 5â€“20m possible with absolute GNSS, many European countries have set up Differential GNSS (DGNSS) reference-station services providing differential GNSS correction and observation data for real-time positioning or post-processing.
set contains stations from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) organization west of USA. organizations such as the International GNSS Service (IGS) .
The PPP technique has a vital advantage over precise positioning with different global navigation satellite system. It supports precise and standard. International GNSS service (IGS), Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and Jet stations.
As a result, it eliminates the spatial operating range limit as well are known in an absolute sense, the absolute position of the user is then obtained).
speed of light could vary from the absolute modeled position to the relative modeled position, and might therefore yield different corrections However, when using a rover position relative to a fixed station, the relative vertical differences from point to point should be similar in • International GNSS Service.
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