This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors. It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes. These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Recht und Macht in Verfahren gegen Hexen — Zugleich eine Untersuchung zur Entstehung des Inquisitionsprozesses This article examines the reasons, which led to the development and the ending of witch trials in the Holy Roman Empire.
Hinduism flourished in the third and fourth centuries C. The Hindu Malla dynasties reigned in the Kathmandu Valley between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, encouraging tolerance toward Buddhism and an orthodox, caste-oriented form of Hinduism.
Since unification in the late eighteenth century and through the hundred-year period of Rana rule, the culture of hill Hindus, Parbatiya, has been dominant. The birth of the nation is dated to Prithvi Narayan Shah's conquest of the Kathmandu Valley kingdoms in The expansionist reigns of Shah and his successors carved out a territory twice the size of modern Nepal.
However, territorial clashes with the Chinese in the late eighteenth century and the British in the early nineteenth century pushed the borders back to their current configuration. To unify a geographically and culturally divided land, Shah perpetuated the culture and language of high-caste Hindus and instituted a social hierarchy in which non-Hindus as well as Hindus were ranked according to caste-based principles.
Caste laws were further articulated in the National Code of By privileging the language and culture of high-caste Hindus, the state has marginalized non-Hindu and low-caste groups. Resentment in recent years has led to the organization of ethnopolitical parties, agitation for minority rights, and talk about the formation of a separate state for Mongolian ethnic groups.
Despite ethnic unrest, Nepalis have a strong sense of national identity and pride. Sacred Hindu and Buddhist sites and the spectacular mountains draw tourists and pilgrims and give citizens a sense of importance in the world.
Other natural resources, such as rivers and flora and fauna are a source of national pride. The population consists of numerous racial, cultural, and linguistic groups that often are divided into three broad categories: Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, and indigenous Nepalese.
Village houses are usually clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. They have settled primarily in the lower hills and river valleys and the Terai. The Tibeto-Nepalese have distinctively Mongolian features and speak Tibeto-Burmese languages; these groups occupy the higher hills and mountainous areas.
Different groups within this category practice Buddhism, animism, or Hinduism. There are scattered tribes of indigenous Nepalis, whose origins probably predate the arrival of Indo- and Tibeto-Nepalese peoples.
Hindu castes and Buddhist and animist ethnic groups were historically collapsed into a single caste hierarchy. At the top are high-caste Hindus. Below them are alcohol-drinking matwali castes, which include Mongolian ethnic groups.
At the bottom are untouchable Hindu castes that have traditionally performed occupations considered defiling by higher castes.
The Newars of the Kathmandu Valley have a caste system that has been absorbed into the national caste hierarchy.
Historically, members of the highest castes have owned the majority of land and enjoyed the greatest political and economic privileges.
Members of lower castes have been excluded from political representation and economic opportunities. The untouchable castes were not permitted to own land, and their civil liberties were circumscribed by law.
Caste discrimination is officially illegal but has not disappeared.
In80 percent of positions in the civil service, army, and police were occupied by members of the two highest castes.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Nepal historically was one of the least urbanized countries in the world, but urbanization is accelerating, especially in the capital, and urban sprawl and pollution have become serious problems. Kathmandu and the neighboring cities of Patan and Bhaktapur are known for pagoda-style and shikhara temples, Buddhist stupas, palaces, and multistory brick houses with elaborately carved wooden door frames and screened windows.
Although the largest and most famous buildings are well maintained, many smaller temples and older residential buildings are falling into disrepair. At the height of British rule in India, the Rana rulers incorporated Western architectural styles into palaces and public buildings.
Rana palaces convey a sense of grandeur and clear separation from the peasantry. The current king's palace's scale and fortress-like quality illustrate the distance between king and commoner. Rural architecture is generally very simple, reflecting the building styles of different caste and ethnic groups, the materials available, and the climate.
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Nepal historically was one of the least urbanized countries in the world, but urbanization is accelerating, especially in the capital, and urban sprawl and pollution have become serious problems. Search and browse our historical collection to find news, notices of births, marriages and deaths, sports, comics, and much more.
Rural houses generally have one or two stories and are made of mud brick with a thatched roof. Village houses tend to be clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life.
Many Nepalis do not feel that they have eaten a real meal unless it has included a sizable helping of rice.There was a pretty massive shift in the s and s when northern Democrats starting supporting the civil rights movement (among other things).
AFAM Intro to African American Studies This course provides an overview of African American history and culture. Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times.
The publisher of the Journal on European History of Law is the STS Science Centre Ltd. seated in London. The European Society for History of Law closely cooperates with the STS Science Centre Ltd.
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The United States already has a multi-billion-dollar system of socialized medicine, called Medicare and Medicaid. Federal, state and local governments spent a .