Livelihood Award Ceremony An award has been honored to Dr. The major activities of HOPE includes provision of health care through hospitals and maternal and child health centers. In addition education for children is provided through formal and informal schools. Vocational centers provide computers and vocational training for youth.
Origin[ edit ] Spikelets of a hulled wheat, einkorn Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms 'sports' of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers.
In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds inside the spikelets remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets.
As the traits that improve wheat as a food source also involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range.
With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswadin the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria.
They also concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere.
A millennium later it reached China. In the British Isles, wheat straw thatch was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, and was in common use until the late 19th century. When the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred.
Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, and the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines and reaping machines the ' combine harvester 'tractor -drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties see Green Revolution and Norin 10 wheat.
Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Genetics[ edit ] Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species. Some wheat species are diploidwith two sets of chromosomesbut many are stable polyploidswith four sets of chromosomes tetraploid or six hexaploid.
Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. The unknown grass has never been identified among now surviving wild grasses, but the closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides.
Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass Aegilops tauschii to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. The presence of certain versions of wheat genes has been important for crop yields.
Apart from mutant versions of genes selected in antiquity during domestication, there has been more recent deliberate selection of alleles that affect growth characteristics.
Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by Japanese wheat breeders to produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields worldwide, and were major factors in the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico and Asia, an initiative led by Norman Borlaug.
Dwarfing genes enable the carbon that is fixed in the plant during photosynthesis to be diverted towards seed production, and they also help prevent the problem of lodging. Wild grasses in the genus Triticum and related genera, and grasses such as rye have been a source of many disease-resistance traits for cultivated wheat breeding since the s.
Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents; these chemicals selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems.
Hybrid wheat has been a limited commercial success in Europe particularly Francethe United States and South Africa. Synthetic hexaploids made by crossing the wild goatgrass wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii and various durum wheats are now being deployed, and these increase the genetic diversity of cultivated wheats.
Basic physiological investigation of these gas exchange processes has yielded valuable carbon isotope based methods that are used for breeding wheat varieties with improved water-use efficiency.The design of the stone huts was a health hazard.
The stone dwelling had two levels with holes in the second floor and the roof to serve as a smoke vent for the fire pit in the middle of the ground level. Agriculture is a vital sector of Pakistan's economy and accounted for percent of GDP in , according to government estimates. Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum).. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a.
HALAL MEAT. Pakistan is an agri-based country with 70% of its population acquiring sustenance through agriculture and 25% of the land is under cultivation and is supported by one of the biggest irrigation systems in the world.
Agriboard Industries delivered a global house system to Shining Light Community development in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan in Early March , the school was a 72 foot by 20 foot structure with three class rooms, and an office. The project was completed on June 20 and allows space for the English speaking pre-school, and primary education need of the tribes in the area.
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